Skip to Main Content

Research with impact

Oxford Academic is Oxford University Press's academic research platform, providing access to over 50,000 books and 500 journals.

Opening doors to trusted research

We publish rigorously peer-reviewed, world-leading, trusted open access research.

Read more about Open access at OUP

Research from all angles

Oxford Intersections–a new concept in interdisciplinary academic publishing from Oxford University Press.

Find out more

Women who tell our stories

We celebrate the triumphs, struggles, and accomplishments of women throughout the ages.

Explore the collection

20 years of scholarship online

Oxford Scholarship Online is celebrating 20 years of bringing you award-winning academic scholarship.

Discover a selection of books

This Feature Is Available To Subscribers Only

Sign In or Create an Account


This PDF is available to Subscribers Only

View Article Abstract & Purchase Options

For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription.