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Legal notice

Updated on: 19/07/2023

This legal notice (these “Terms”) sets out the terms of your access and use of publications and products (“Publications”) and other content available on this website (the “Site”) which is owned by Oxford University Press (“OUP,” “we,” “us,” or “our”).  

Please note that these Terms are subject to OUP’s privacy policies and other polices linked to at the bottom of the Site. These Terms are also subject to any additional terms located on particular pages of the Site. If the additional terms conflict with these Terms, the additional terms will prevail with respect to your use of that Publication.  By using the Site, you are agreeing to these Terms.

As the information on the Site, including in Publications, may be incomplete, out of date or inaccurate and may contain inaccuracies or typographical errors, OUP reserves the right to update the Site or the Publications at our sole discretion and without notice. We also may make changes to these Terms at any time and will post changes to this page.

Usernames and passwords

You may access certain parts of the Site without registering with OUP. Where you have been provided with a username and password to access any part of the Site, they are for your personal use and must not be shared with anyone else. You must notify us promptly of any disclosure of your username and/or password to allow us to take appropriate security measures.

Access to Subscription Content

Access to all or part of certain Publications and certain parts of this Site is restricted to authorized subscribers (“Restricted Content”). Under the terms of access to Restricted Content accepted by a subscriber (which could be you as an individual or an institution to which you are affiliated as an authorized user) you are permitted for your own personal use or for the purposes of research, teaching, and private study to:

  1. search, view, retrieve, and display portions of Restricted Content
  2. electronically save to a secure network or other electronic storage media portions of Restricted Content; and/or
  3. print out single copies of individual articles or items from Restricted Content

in each case, subject to any restrictions which appear on particular pages of the Site.

But, unless your subscriber agreement expressly allows otherwise in respect of certain Restricted Content, you may not:

  1. remove or alter the copyright notices or other means of identification or disclaimers as they appear on the Restricted Content;
  2. systematically make printed or electronic copies of multiple extracts of Restricted Content for any purpose except as permitted by applicable law;
  3. display or distribute any Restricted Content on any other site, the internet or any electronic network;
  4. permit anyone to access or use the Restricted Content; and/or
  5. use any Restricted Content for any commercial use.

Free-to-view content

OUP may designate all or part of certain Publications or other content on this Site as free-to-view (“Free-to-View Content”).  You may, without charge, access, view, reproduce or store copies of Free-to-View Content but only for your personal use.  Any use of Free-to-View Content in whole or in part must include the customary bibliographic citation, including author attribution, date, article title, journal title, and URL and must include a copy of the copyright notice.

But, you may not:

  1. remove or alter the copyright notices or other means of identification or disclaimers as they appear in the Free-to View Content;
  2. systematically make printed or electronic copies of multiple extracts of the Free-to-View Content for any purpose except as permitted by applicable law or as expressly authorised by OUP;
  3. display or distribute any part of the Free-to-View Content on any other site, the internet or any electronic network;
  4. permit anyone else to access or use the Free-to-View Content; and/or
  5. use all or any part of the Free-to-View Content for any commercial use.

For details on how to obtain permissions to use the Free-to-View Content beyond that described above, please see the Licensing and Translations page.

Open Access content

Certain Publications, or article or item of a Publication, have been published under the terms of a Creative Commons Open Access licence (“OA Content”). For OA Content, the permitted terms of use and reuse are set out in the respective Creative Commons licence, which supersede the use and reuse rights in these Terms.  The applicable Creative Commons licence can be identified by looking at the relevant copyright line for the Publication or article or item of the Publication. OUP most often applies the following Creative Commons licences to OA Content, and the links below will give details of the applicable use and reuse rights for each:




If other Creative Commons licence types are indicated in the relevant copyright line, please refer to the applicable licence terms on the Creative Commons website for details.

Intellectual property rights

We and/or our licensors are the owners of all intellectual property rights in the Site, the Publications, and other content on the Site. The Site, the Publications and the other content on the Site are protected by intellectual property laws around the world including copyright and trade mark laws. Subject to these Terms and any other agreements between you and OUP, all such rights are reserved and no materials may otherwise be copied, modified, published, broadcast or otherwise distributed without our prior written permission. “Oxford” “Oxford University Press” and/or any other names of products or services provided by Oxford University Press and referred to on the Site are either trademarks or registered trademarks of Oxford University Press.

Notwithstanding the foregoing and where applicable, copyright in each illustration that appears on the Site is owned by the rights holder(s) named in ‘Picture Details’ window for that illustration. All rights are reserved. No illustration from the Site may be copied, modified, published or broadcast or otherwise distributed.


OUP makes no warranties or representations of any kind concerning the accuracy, completeness or suitability of any information or content appearing on the Site. Further, OUP and the learned societies, authors and others who publish Publications with OUP make no representations or warranties, express or implied, as to the accuracy or completeness of the whole or any part of the Publications, or as to the accuracy or efficacy of the treatments or dosages in the Publications, and they do not accept, and expressly disclaim, responsibility for any liability, loss or risk that may be claimed or incurred as a consequence of the use or application of the whole or any part of the Publications.

The information and content appearing on the Site or in the Publications is not intended to be, and should not be considered, a substitute for medical or other professional advice. Practitioners and researchers must rely on their own experience, knowledge, and judgement in evaluating or applying any information, which remains their professional responsibility.  Research and knowledge about medical and health issues is constantly evolving and diagnoses, treatments, and dose schedules for medications are being revised continually.  Because of this and rapid advances in the medical sciences and changes in government regulations and clearances, we recommend independent verification of all product information and clinical procedures using the most up-to-date published product information and data sheets provided by the manufacturers and the most recent codes of conduct and safety regulations.

The mention of trade names, commercial products or organizations, and the inclusion of advertisements on the Site or on or in connection with a Publication does not constitute any endorsement by OUP, or the learned societies, authors or others who publish the Publications with OUP. 

In no event shall OUP, its employees, agents or licensors, or the learned societies or authors who publish Publications with OUP be liable to you for any direct, indirect or consequential damages, loss of opportunity, loss of data, loss of goodwill, loss of anticipated savings or loss of profits resulting from the use of the Site even if advised of such loss.

The exclusions, disclaimers and limitations of liability set out in these Terms only apply to the extent permitted by law.


Links to other websites are provided by OUP in good faith and for information only. OUP disclaims any responsibility for the materials contained in any website linked to the Site. In addition, a link to a non-OUP website does not mean that OUP endorses or accepts any responsibility for the content, or the use, of such website or the products and/or services offered on such website. It is up to you to take precautions to ensure that whatever you select for your use is free of such items as viruses, worms, trojans and other items of a destructive nature.

Interactive Materials

Portions of the Site may allow you to post or transmit your own material. Materials posted by users do not necessarily reflect the views of OUP. By posting materials on our Site, you represent that you have all necessary rights in and to such materials and that such materials will not infringe any personal or proprietary rights of any third parties, that such material is not technically harmful (including, without limitation, computer viruses, logic bombs, Trojan horses, worms, harmful components, corrupted data or other malicious software or harmful data), nor will such materials be defamatory, unlawful, threatening, obscene or otherwise objectionable.

OUP reserves the right, at its sole discretion, to review, edit or delete any material posted by users that OUP deems defamatory, unlawful, threatening, obscene or otherwise objectionable. Notwithstanding the foregoing, OUP expressly disclaims any responsibility or liability for any material communicated by third parties through the Site.

Service access

While we endeavour to ensure that the Site is normally available 24 hours a day, we shall not be liable if for any reason the Site is unavailable at any time or for any period. Access to the Site may be suspended temporarily and without notice in the case of system failure, maintenance or repair or for reasons beyond our control.

OUP makes no warranties or representations of any kind that the services provided by this Site will be uninterrupted, error-free or that the Site or the servers that host the Site are free from viruses or other forms of harmful computer code.

Global nature of websites

You recognise the global nature of the Site and agree to comply with all applicable local laws in your jurisdiction when using the Site.

Information we publish on the Site may contain references or cross-references to our services and/or products offered that are not announced or available in your country. Such references do not imply that we intend to announce such services and/or products in your country.

Governing law

You agree that these Terms shall be exclusively governed in accordance with the laws of and the courts in England and Wales. Notwithstanding the foregoing, nothing in these Terms will preclude OUP from applying to any court to bring an action for the infringement of its or its licensors’ intellectual property rights.


If you have any concerns about material which appears on the Site, please contact us.

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